In order to reach that paradise, however, one needed to know where to go, how to address certain gods, what to say at certain times, and how to comport one's self in the land of the dead; which is why one would find an afterlife manual extremely useful. The Book of the Dead originated from concepts depicted in tomb paintings and inscriptions from as early as the Third Dynasty of Egypt c.
By the 12th Dynasty - BCE these spells, with accompanying illustrations, were written on papyrus and placed in tombs and graves with the dead. Their purpose, as historian Margaret Bunson explains, "was to instruct the deceased on how to overcome the dangers of the afterlife by enabling them to assume the form of serveral mythical creatures and to give them the passwords necessary for admittance to certain stages of the underworld" They also served, however, to provide the soul with fore-knowledge of what would be expected at every stage.
Having a Book of the Dead in one's tomb would be the equivalent of a student in the modern day getting their hands on all the test answers they would ever need in every grade of school. At some point prior to BCE the different spells had been divided in chapters and, by the time of the New Kingdom - BCE , the book was extremely popular. Scribes who were experts in spells would be consulted to fashion custom-made books for an individual or a family. Bunson notes, "These spells and passwords were not part of a ritual but were fashioned for the deceased, to be recited in the afterlife" If someone were sick, and feared they might die, they would go to a scribe and have them write up a book of spells for the afterlife.
The scribe would need to know what kind of life the person had lived in order to surmise the type of journey they could expect after death; then the appropriate spells would be written specifically for that individual. The popularity of the Osiris Myth in the period of the New Kingdom made people believe the spells were indispensible because Osiris featured so prominently in the soul's judgment in the afterlife. As more and more people desired their own Book of the Dead, scribes obliged them and the book became just another commodity produced for sale. In the same way that publishers in the present day offer Print on Demand books or self-published works, the scribes offered different "packages" to clients to choose from.
They could have as few or as many spells in their books as they could afford. Bunson writes, "The individual could decide the number of chapters to be included, the types of illustrations, and the quality of the papyrus used.
The individual was limited only by his or her financial resources" It continued to vary in form and size until c. A Book of the Dead from the Ptolemaic Dynasty which belonged to a woman named Tentruty had the text of The Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys attached to it which was never included as part of the Book of the Dead.
Other copies of the book continued to be produced with more or less spells depending on what the buyer could afford. The one spell which every copy seems to have had, however, was Spell Spell is the best known of all the texts of the Book of the Dead. People who are unacquainted with the book, but who have even the slightest acquaintance with Egyptian mythology , know the spell without even realizing it. Spell describes the judging of the heart of the deceased by the god Osiris in the Hall of Truth, one of the best known images from ancient Egypt , even though the god with his scales is never actually described in the text.
As it was vital that the soul pass the test of the weighing of the heart in order to gain paradise, knowing what to say and how to act before Osiris, Thoth , Anubis , and the Forty-Two Judges was considered the most important information the deceased could arrive with. This was a list of 42 sins the person could honestly say they had never indulged in. Once the Negative Confession was made, Osiris, Thoth, Anubis, and the Forty-Two Judges would confer and, if the confession was accepted, the heart of the deceased was then weighed in the balance against the white feather of Ma'at, the feather of truth.
If the heart was found to be lighter than the feather, the soul passed on toward paradise; if the heart was heavier, it was thrown onto the floor where it was devoured by the monster goddess Ammut and the soul would cease to exist. Hail to you, great god, Lord of Justice! I have come to you, my lord, that you may bring me so that I may see your beauty for I know you and I know your name and I know the names of the forty-two gods of those who are with you in this Hall of Justice, who live on those who cherish evil and who gulp down their blood on that day of the reckoning of characters in the presence of Wennefer [another name for Osiris].
Behold the double son of the Songstresses; Lord of Truth is your name. Behold, I have come to you, I have brought you truth, I have repelled falsehood for you. I have not done falsehood against men, I have not impoverished my associates, I have done no wrong in the Place of Truth, I have not learnt that which is not After this prologue the soul then speaks the Negative Confession and is questioned by the gods and the Forty-Two Judges.
Through the Twelve Chambers of Hell: The Afterlife in Ancient Egypt
At this point certain very specific information was required in order to be justified by the gods. One needed to know the different gods' names and what they were responsible for but one also needed to know such details as the names of the doors in the room and the floor one needed to walk across; one even needed to know the names of one's own feet.
As the soul answered each deity and object with the correct response, they would hear the reply, "You know us; pass by us" and could continue. At one point, the soul must answer the floor about the soul's feet:. Tell them to me. The spell concludes with what the soul should be wearing when it meets judgment and how one should recite the spell:. The correct procedure in this Hall of Justice: One shall utter this spell pure and clean and clad in white garments and sandals, painted with black eye-paint and annointed with myrrh.
There shall be offered to him meat and poultry, incense, bread, beer , and herbs when you have put this written procedure on a clean floor of ochre overlaid with earth upon which no swine or small cattle have trodden. Following this, the scribe who wrote the spell congratulates himself on a job well done and assures the reader that he, the scribe, will flourish as will his children for his part in providing the spell.
He will do well, he says, when he himself comes to judgment and will "be ushered in with the kings of Upper Egypt and the kings of Lower Egypt and he shall be in the suite of Osiris. I liked the way you moved from the Black Creek series to the Nickie Savage series.
These characters are people I would like to meet and have as friends. I have read all of your books, was all set to get the next Nickie Savage-Savage Rendezvous let me know when it is coming out. Thanks you.
Dear Wanda: Savage Rendezvous is due out this summer. Oh, and thank you for the lovely review on Amazon.
Reviews are huge for authors. I am truly grateful.
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I like that you carry the people on to the next books. I read both and am hooked. I love the characters and story lines. Great Writing! Good Day, hope all is well with you. I know you must be tired of people wanting to know when the next Savage book will be out, but we have all been waiting since spring time and still no new book.
Do you have a release date set for book 3 yet? I was hooked on R. Great story lines…love that the characters have strong family connections and add in romantic relationships…. I kept thinking how much I was going to miss these characters! THEN in the last book a new character, Nickie, was introduced which was a lead into her own Nickie Savage series, taking her relationship with Duncan Reed and his family along with her. Makes for a very exciting read!!! Definitely a page turner making it hard to put it down. Oh, how I will miss all the characters in this series!
I loved them when we were first introduced to them in the Black Creek Series and how they kept popping up in the Nickie Savage Series. I wish her more amazing and wonderful stories ahead.
- The Edge Chronicles 3: Clash of the Sky Galleons: Third Book of Quint.
- The Politics of Protection: The Limits of Humanitarian Action;
- Tigress #02.
- Revolutionary Road (Vintage Classics).
I'm a sucker for a good second chance romance. I just can't help it, any and all things second chance I will for certain pick it up. This was a really enjoyable read, it hit all my buttons making me a very happy reader.
These two were just amazeballs! Not only did Ahren Sanders make you want these two amazing people to be together, she made you need for these two to be together. Not only did we get two great mains, we also get so many amazing out characters as well. Everyone really played such an important part at certain points of the story, which really made you get a sense of the importance of family and having a great support system on your side. Which was a very big factor in this book. What I loved so much about the two mains, were how grounded they were.
Every thought or decision that was made I could totally understand and except. There was some outside drama going on, because what would a book be without that, but what I will say is that there wasn't drama within the two mains. Basically, they dealt will the outside drama, but as a couple they handled it and were able to more forward together. Jan 14, Nicla rated it it was amazing Shelves: hero-who-knows-what-he-wants , safe-no-cheating , favorite , safe-with-exception , romance , sweet , alpha , hot-hot-hot , second-chance-romance.
Loved it. Second chance romances aren't my favorite genre but Reed's Reckoning was awesome. Very addictive read. I didn't want to put it down. Reed was an awesome hero. He loved Ari so fiercely. Ari was a sweet heroine. I do think their college breakup was a bit unbelievable and that both of them could have tried harder to talk to each other back then.
But I love how now they talk through their problems and once they get together they stay together. Heroine does date another guy but doesn't have sex with him. She does say she did other things with him. No cheating though. View all 8 comments.
Lou Reed: Photographer | The Independent
Jun 28, Erika marked it as stay-away-from-this Shelves: hero-sexual-with-ow-during-separat. Not planning to read this. View all 5 comments. Sep 07, CC rated it really liked it Shelves: get-your-head-out-of-your-ass , ow-ex-drama-lama , hero-history-i-hated , safe-with-exceptions , single-parent , second-chance-not-celibate.